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  •  #48 TOP Fitness Secrets by Norbert Simonis (AED 197 Value)
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Everything You Get With Your FREE TRIAL Today!
  • Health & Fitness SECRETS - Our Flagship (997 AED Value)
  •  Career & Recruit SECRETS - How to get your "Dream Job" (597 AED Value)
  •  Franchise Business SECRETS - Your own "Fitness Business" Today (797 AED Value) 
  •  Nutrition Plan (AED 97 Value)
  •  Body Check BMI (AED 97 Value)
  •  Training Sheet, Body Measurements & Pictures For Before and After (AED 97 Value) 
  •  Lifestyle Check (AED 47 Value) 
  •  Blood Pressure Test (AED 97 Value) 
  •  Fitness & Nutrition Consultation (AED 97 Value)
  •  Nutrition Diary (Priceless...)
  •  #48 TOP Fitness Secrets by Norbert Simonis (AED 197 Value)
  •  Personal Nutrition Plan by Norbert Simonis (AED 197 Value) 
  •  Grocery List + Bulk / Lean Nutrition Plan (AED 127 Value) 
  •  Home Exercises with 100% result warranty! (Priceless...)
  •  Cooking recipes for healthy and delicious food ❤️ (Priceless...)
  •  🔝Daily NEW Health & Wealth Videos on my YouTube Channel. 🎬 (Priceless...)
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 Time saving and highly effective EMS Training with just 20 minutes once per week.
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"I have already tried everything, only with the EMS training my body started to listen to me again and I was able to lose 10 kilos despite the metabolic disease"

Carolin

"It's a quick workout that just makes us feel good - sometimes we see young people on the street who have a significantly worse posture and body tension than we do, and the quality of life is another" 

Edith and Josef

"I finally enjoy fitness training! My upper body is already much defined, my back pain is less pain and my physiotherapist already noticed the strengthening of my back muscles"

Michael
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Results With Body Time
Studio Tour
Superstars Are Doing It Also
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What Is EMS And How It Works
(See More about the Future of Fitness)
Back Pain? FORGET It from now on!
(Believe Me One Session Only gonna Change Your Life)
The most common health issue nowadays is back pain. There are many reasons for this suffering: lack of movement, long sitting, absenteeism, overweight, stress or overload. First, you have to understand how and why the back pain appears, a series of muscles and ligaments in your back hold the bones of your spinal column in place. 

The muscles are weakened, so they may not be able to hold the bones of your spinal column in place correctly. In EMS training, a special functional clothing with electrodes is applied to the trainee, which conduct electrical impulses through the body. The electrodes on the EMS vest are also attached in the area of the lower back so that the impulses directly reach the lower muscles in the back. With the equipment in traditional fitness studios usually only the large muscle groups can be trained, so EMS training is the more sensible treatment method for combating back pain in the lower back. Training the lower back quickly leads to muscle building. Thus, the body is stabilized and the posture improved. 

With EMS training, even the deep muscles in the back are stimulated, which is hardly reached in traditional strength training.
How It Works
(This is How The Magic Happen)
Time Saving Full Body Personal Training Workout in Less Than 20 min a Week!
EMS training represents the most effective training method which can be used to train all major muscle groups simultaneously in a time-efficient manner. It addresses and stimulates all muscle groups individually and jointly. Due to its unique and made-in-Germany technology and well-adjusted frequency of the EMS device, Miha BodyTec II, it can activate not only the external parts of the muscles but also the deeper muscle fibers which cannot be engaged in a conventional workout. You will, therefore, get much more contractions per minute and at the same time, these contractions are more intense. 
The Future Of Fitness Today
Hence, only a 20-minute training is all it needs to produce highly effective training results. Depending on your level of fitness and goals, your training session is either low impact or highly intense to activate deep muscle hypertrophy, so your personal trainer will control each muscle group by adjusting the training intensity according to your individual goals. Indeed, Body Time personal trainers customize every training session to suit your needs, from heavy strength training to fat and cellulite reduction regimes. 

Finally, you will get the best results of Body Time EMS training fast and easily; now you can tone up your body, lose weight, reduce cellulite and build strong lean muscles in only 20 minutes per week.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
What is EMS training
EMS stands for the Electro Muscle Stimulation. From a technical perspective, EMS training is whole-body training based on sending the same electric impulses that the human brain sends when contracting the muscles. Notwithstanding, EMS training can reach and stimulate the deepest fibers of the muscles faster and more effective than the traditional physical workout.
How does EMS training work?
During a 20-minute EMS session, the made-in-Germany technology and well-adjusted frequency of the EMS device can stimulate all the major muscle groups which cannot normally be activated by the traditional workouts. In fact, you’re getting an extra intense training in a short amount of time, whilst moving less.
How long does and EMS training session take?
Typically, Body Time EMS training session lasts just 20 minutes. If it is your first time, the session will be double the usual time, as we will include a brief about the training and a full body checkup.
How many sessions should I do per week in order to see results?
Since it is an intense training, we recommend that our clients train once only per week. After each session, your body needs at least 72 hours of recovery during which it builds muscles and burns fats. In just a few sessions you will see great results as long as you go on a healthy diet.
Do I need to have any particular training equipment?
No, there is no need to bring anything with you. At Body Time EMS, we provide you with everything you need including a sanitized training suit and a towel for your shower after the training.
Can I combine EMS with the traditional workout?
Yes. Actually, it would be great if you combined both training programs. You just have to make sure that your muscles are recovered after each training session.
What can I benefit from EMS training?
Essentially, since a 20-minute EMS session can stimulate all the major muscle groups, it is the most effective training for losing weight, improving your fitness level, building lean muscles, additionally it is used as a rehabilitation method after injuries. EMS training can relieve the joints stress, reduce back pain and tighten the trouble areas in your body. Briefly, it is the fastest and easiest way to achieve all your fitness goals.
Why is EMS so effective?
With Body Time EMS training, 90% of your muscles get recruited altogether. The impulses reach the deepest muscle fibers which cannot be reached easily with the traditional workouts. Thus, a 20-minute EMS session equals 6 hours of physical workout, and its effect is 18 times higher than the conventional workout.
What requirements must one meet to use EMS?
In fact, no one needs any special requirements in particular. Every healthy person can make effective use of EMS. EMS training suits all people of all ages and fitness levels. Nevertheless, you just need to fill out a form notifying us of any special conditions that might prevent you from starting your first session.
What requirements must one meet to use EMS?
In fact, no one needs any special requirements in particular. Every healthy person can make effective use of EMS. EMS training suits all people of all ages and fitness levels. Nevertheless, you just need to fill out a form notifying us of any special conditions that might prevent you from starting your first session.
Are there any medical conditions that might prevent me from using EMS training?
Almost all people can use EMS training, however, if you have a certain health condition that could prevent you, you need to get approval from your doctor. Unfortunately, people with the following conditions cannot use EMS: 

· Heart pacemaker 
· Pregnancy 
· Severe circulatory disorder & arterial circulatory disorder 
· Abdominal wall or an inguinal hernia 
· Tuberculosis 
· Tumor diseases 
· Arteriosclerosis in advanced stadium 
· Diabetes mellitus 
· Severe neurological illnesses (epilepsy, multiple sclerosis) 
· Fever, acute bacterial or viral infections 
Can I benefit from EMS training even if I have never trained before?
Yes, of course. Even if you have never trained, you can achieve visible and tangible results in a short period of time. After the training, you feel healthier and stronger because it improves the physical performance, endurance, and the maximal strength.
 Are there any medical conditions that can be improved with EMS?
Absolutely yes, there are many scientific studies have proved that EMS can greatly relieve back pain and joints stress within a few sessions. It can also effectively help improve muscle imbalances. Moreover, it is the most effective to tighten the skin and tone the body after pregnancy. Most importantly, EMS has been being used by professional athletes for rehabilitation after the injuries.
Can I use EMS after pregnancy?
Yes, indeed you can. After a pregnancy, your muscle volume and strength decrease and the connective tissue is often overstretched. When it comes to gently rebuilding a specific muscle or muscle groups, Body Time EMS training can effectively target and engage the deepest parts of the muscles. Consequently, EMS also can tighten the sagging skin and remove the stretch marks that usually appear after pregnancy. However, it is extremely necessary to consult with your doctor before starting EMS training.
Is EMS good for weight loss?
Yes, of course. Body Time EMS training is the most efficient fitness technology for lasting weight-loss and fat burning. In fact, EMS training boosts your metabolism and speeds up the burning-calorie process. EMS can target the deeper muscle fibers building stronger muscles and burning the surrounding fats. Along with a healthy nutrition plan, you will burn the stubborn fats and lose weight quickly.
Can EMS training be a long-term fitness program?
Sure it can. EMS training should be used on a regular basis and in long-term. It is strongly recommended that you train regularly so that you can stay fit and healthy and keep your body toned.
 Is the current used in EMS safe?
Yes, it is completely safe. The low-frequency electrical current used in the training doesn’t harm or hurt at all. Simply, the devices send the same impulses the brains send when contracting the muscles.
Are there any side effects for the electric impulses of EMS?
No. As shown in various official studies, there are no negative side effects for healthy individuals at all. Conversely, you can achieve all your fitness goals shortly and easily.
Can I get an electric shock during the workout?
No, never! It is impossible to get an electric shock during the training as the German-made devices send low-frequency current using a battery. The intensity of the generated impulses is maximum 0.05 Watt RMS. Therefore, there’s no concern in this regard at all.
Does the electric current harm my heart?
No. actually, the light impulses go gently through your skin targeting the deeper layer of the muscles, and there’s no way to reach any of your body organs. Hence, EMS never harms your heart.
Why is Body Time EMS only 20 minutes once per week?
Since EMS is an intense training, it contracts all your body muscles at once. Furthermore, Body Time EMS training has a great effect that lasts during the next 6 days to the session allowing the muscles to grow and the body to burn more fats.
Are there any studies on EMS training?
Yes, there are a number of official studies done by highly-experienced specialists. EMS technology has been being used over the last 3 decades and there are several published studies on EMS training and its benefits.
What distinguishes Body Time from other EMS providers?
In fact, Body Time introduced the concept of EMS training in UAE and is the market leader, providing the most effective, 20-minute high-intensity training. All customers have their own personal trainers who guide and help them achieve their fitness goals with tailored plans and targeted results. Technically, during the 20-minute EMS session, you’ll get the best out of EMS training.
Is there a Body Time EMS studio in my area?
Body Time EMS has a number of branches across the UAE. There are more than 80 professional, certified personal trainers guiding our customers to make their dreams come true. We are looking to expand in the near future thus covering more areas in the United Arab Emirates and abroad.
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Get FREE Access to our Web Apps
(Body Time give you EVERYTHING you need for unlimited Personal Success for FREE)
As You Can See... BODY TIME Has Already Helped Countless People Around The World...
The Question Is,
Are YOU Next?
Like I mentioned before, you can signup now for a FREE 14 day trial and see if BODY TIME | Health & Fitness SECRETS is for you!  

Oh, and in case you're wondering...
There Is NO CATCH!
“Ok Norbert… all this free stuff… What’s the catch?”    

So, there is NO catch.

But there IS a very specific reason why I’m doing this...

A few reasons, actually:
  • It’s one of the best ways I can think of to give back and contribute. I firmly believe that in order to keep growing in health & fitness, at a certain point, the student must become the teacher, and help others who are on the same journey.
  •  BODY TIME needs to be USED in order to fully grasp how it can help simplify and grow your personnel success. You wouldn’t dream of buying a car without first taking it for a test drive to see what it can do (and if it’s the right fit), right?
I've tried to give you EVERY reason to say YES, but now it is YOUR choice

So, which one’s it gonna’ be?

If you want to choose the life of Health & Wealth security and freedom... I’m giving you the incredibly simple, easy, cheap and quick way to switch over to the side of life where worries are few and fun is a-plenty!

Make no mistake. Your decision whether to take the free trial or not does not affect me or my lifestyle one bit.
If You Do Nothing...
Nothing Happens.
I won’t live any differently than I do now. My life won’t change one lick if you decide against coming on board with us.

But… YOUR LIFE could change dramatically when you take advantage of this rare opportunity to start on my shoulders - and get everything you need to make it rain.

You have everything to gain, and nothing to lose.

You’ve already paid your dues in life, and now it’s YOUR TIME to get the payback!

Time Is Of The Essence...
If you've made it this far, you’ve already taken a gigantic step forward.

The next step?

Action.

And this is the clear line that separates winners from the losers.

Action is the real key to making it big in this world full of dreamers and armchair mystics.

  - Anyone can say they want riches
  - Anyone can set goals for riches.
  - Anyone can dream of riches.

But the rewards come only to those who actually DO SOMETHING, not talk about doing something.

You can elect to grab the riches within your reach now, or continue living your life as usual.

I think the choice is clear.
Do You Have A Guarantee?

Of course. :) 


I guarantee that you'll LOVE BODY TIME...

and if for some reason you decide later that you don't want to be a members anymore, then we'll happily cancel your account without any penalties or fees. 
We don't believe in any long term contracts so you can come and go as you please.
So, Are You Excited About 
BODY TIME Yet? :) 
If So, Then NOW Is The Time To Take Action!
Here's What You Need To Do Right Now:
As You Can See... BODY TIME Has Already Helped Countless People Around The World...
The Question Is,
Are YOU Next?
Like I mentioned before, you can signup now for a FREE 14 day trial and see if BODY TIME | Health & Fitness SECRETS is for you!  

Oh, and in case you're wondering...
There Is NO CATCH!
“Ok Norbert… all this free stuff… What’s the catch?”    

So, there is NO catch.

But there IS a very specific reason why I’m doing this...

A few reasons, actually:
  • It’s one of the best ways I can think of to give back and contribute. I firmly believe that in order to keep growing in health & fitness, at a certain point, the student must become the teacher, and help others who are on the same journey.
  •  BODY TIME needs to be USED in order to fully grasp how it can help simplify and grow your personnel success. You wouldn’t dream of buying a car without first taking it for a test drive to see what it can do (and if it’s the right fit), right?
I've tried to give you EVERY reason to say YES, but now it is YOUR choice

So, which one’s it gonna’ be?

If you want to choose the life of Health & Wealth security and freedom... I’m giving you the incredibly simple, easy, cheap and quick way to switch over to the side of life where worries are few and fun is a-plenty!

Make no mistake. Your decision whether to take the free trial or not does not affect me or my lifestyle one bit.
If You Do Nothing...
Nothing Happens.
I won’t live any differently than I do now. My life won’t change one lick if you decide against coming on board with us.

But… YOUR LIFE could change dramatically when you take advantage of this rare opportunity to start on my shoulders - and get everything you need to make it rain.

You have everything to gain, and nothing to lose.

You’ve already paid your dues in life, and now it’s YOUR TIME to get the payback!

Time Is Of The Essence...
If you've made it this far, you’ve already taken a gigantic step forward.

The next step?

Action.

And this is the clear line that separates winners from the losers.

Action is the real key to making it big in this world full of dreamers and armchair mystics.

  - Anyone can say they want riches
  - Anyone can set goals for riches.
  - Anyone can dream of riches.

But the rewards come only to those who actually DO SOMETHING, not talk about doing something.

You can elect to grab the riches within your reach now, or continue living your life as usual.

I think the choice is clear.
Do You Have A Guarantee?

Of course. :) 


I guarantee that you'll LOVE BODY TIME...

and if for some reason you decide later that you don't want to be a members anymore, then we'll happily cancel your account without any penalties or fees. 
We don't believe in any long term contracts so you can come and go as you please.
So, Are You Excited About 
BODY TIME Yet? :) 
If So, Then NOW Is The Time To Take Action!
Here's What You Need To Do Right Now:
Let Me Show You Everything You'll Get Today When You Join Health & Fitness SECRETS Today! 
Everything You Get With Your FREE TRIAL Today!
  • Health & Fitness SECRETS - Our Flagship (997 AED Value)
  •  Career & Recruit SECRETS - How to get your "Dream Job" (597 AED Value)
  •  Franchise Business SECRETS - Your own "Fitness Business" Today (797 AED Value) 
  •  Nutrition Plan (AED 97 Value)
  •  Body Check BMI (AED 97 Value)
  •  Training Sheet, Body Measurements & Pictures For Before and After (AED 97 Value) 
  •  Lifestyle Check (AED 47 Value) 
  •  Blood Pressure Test (AED 97 Value) 
  •  Fitness & Nutrition Consultation (AED 97 Value)
  •  Nutrition Diary (Priceless...)
  •  #48 TOP Fitness Secrets by Norbert Simonis (AED 197 Value)
  •  Personal Nutrition Plan by Norbert Simonis (AED 197 Value) 
  •  Grocery List + Bulk / Lean Nutrition Plan (AED 127 Value) 
  •  Home Exercises with 100% result warranty! (Priceless...)
  •  Cooking recipes for healthy and delicious food ❤️ (Priceless...)
  •  🔝Daily NEW Health & Wealth Videos on my YouTube Channel. 🎬 (Priceless...)
Total Value: AED 3444
Get Started Today for:
FREE!
+++ Plus Extra Bonus: Special Discount on ALL our Packages + Trial Session (LIMITED TIME OFFER HURRY UP!)
Let Me Show You Everything You'll Get Today When You Join Health & Fitness SECRETS Today! 
Everything You Get With Your FREE TRIAL Today!
  • Health & Fitness SECRETS - Our Flagship (997 AED Value)
  •  Career & Recruit SECRETS - How to get your "Dream Job" (597 AED Value)
  •  Franchise Business SECRETS - Your own "Fitness Business" Today (797 AED Value) 
  •  Nutrition Plan (AED 97 Value)
  •  Body Check BMI (AED 97 Value)
  •  Training Sheet, Body Measurements & Pictures For Before and After (AED 97 Value) 
  •  Lifestyle Check (AED 47 Value) 
  •  Blood Pressure Test (AED 97 Value) 
  •  Fitness & Nutrition Consultation (AED 97 Value)
  •  Nutrition Diary (Priceless...)
  •  #48 TOP Fitness Secrets by Norbert Simonis (AED 197 Value)
  •  Personal Nutrition Plan by Norbert Simonis (AED 197 Value) 
  •  Grocery List + Bulk / Lean Nutrition Plan (AED 127 Value) 
  •  Home Exercises with 100% result warranty! (Priceless...)
  •  Cooking recipes for healthy and delicious food ❤️ (Priceless...)
  •  🔝Daily NEW Health & Wealth Videos on my YouTube Channel. 🎬 (Priceless...)
Total Value: AED 3444
Get Started Today for:
FREE!
+++ Plus Extra Bonus: Special Discount on ALL our Packages + Trial Session (LIMITED TIME OFFER HURRY UP!)
From here it's just finalizing the details. Click on the button above and we can finally get started!    

Thanks for taking the time to read this letter and watch the training video and I look forward to hearing from you soon!

Thanks,
Norbert Simonis

P.S. 30 days from now you can be nothing more than 30 days older or screeching off to the wildest ride of your life using BODY TIME | Health & Fitness SECRETS to grow your personal success. You choose.
WHOLE-BODY ELECTROMYOSTIMULATION AS A TOPIC OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL PHYSICS (IMP), FRIEDRICH-ALEXANDER UNIVERSITY ERLANGEN-NUREMBERG (GERMANY)
Based on almost 20 years of experience in human intervention research with high methodological standards, the Institute for Medical Physics of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg has now intensified its efforts in the field of ‘innovative training and rehabilitation technologies’. Following various new possibilities of application, we quickly began to focus our research on whole- body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS). This interest is reflected in a multitude of training studies which not only address different acute questions and problems concerning WB-EMS but are also of interest for different population groups. 

The following overview shows some of the issues which we regard as of particular interest, such as (1) WB-EMS in older people, (2) the 
discussion of low vs. medium frequency, (3) WB-EMS combined with  endurance training, (4) possible acute health consequences after reckless application and (5) WB-EMS effects on body composition and strength parameters compared with HIT-training protocols closely synchronized in duration. We hope this will motivate the reader to reflect on and share our thoughts and motivations.

WB-EMS – studies in older people
As a department of research into musculoskeletal diseases we study the consequences of physical training on muscle and bone parameters in elderly people. Even during recruitment one frequently gets the impression of mainly reaching those who are doing sport anyway. A feeling often confirmed during the baseline measurements of interventions. In fact, statistics show that just a minority of 30 % of elderly people are sufficiently active enough to generate a positive impact on muscle and bone. Lifetime sports abstainers in particular show justifiably less enthusiasm for starting (or being able to start) a conventional training program with appropriate intensity and frequency.
 
Alternative training technologies such as WB-EMS might be a way of providing independent prevention and therapy that offers joint-friendliness, time-efficiency and a certain exclusivity.

To investigate the effectivity, applicability and attractiveness of WB-EMS in elderly, underperforming and less sport affine people, we conducted the “Training and ElectromyoStimulation Trials” (TEST) series. Here we mainly addressed sedentary older people (60 - 90 years) in randomized controlled studies (RCTs) with adequate statistical power using “gold standard” measurements.
For our first trail (TEST I) (Kemmler, Teschler, & Von Stengel, 2015) we selected women (60+) with experience in strength training. Initially we put the emphasis on evaluating the feasibility, acceptance and effectiveness of this type of intervention (WB-EMS, 1.5 x 20 min/week, 14 weeks) in women with experience in (strength) training together with good resilience and positive physical feeling.
 
Besides high acceptance and compliance, we found (significant) improvements in muscle mass, body fat, strength and power compared with a group which just continuing its conventional exercise training. 
 
Motivated by the positive results of TEST I we ventured on a more “crucial” intervention group in TEST II (Kemmler, Teschler, & Von Stengel, 2015), made up of untrained and physically inactive men (65+) with cardio-metabolic diseases and abdominal obesity. The central aim was the enhancement of lean body mass (LBM) and reduction of abdominal body fat level both total and also with a negative cardio-metabolic effect. After 14 weeks of WB-EMS (1.5 x 20 min/week) we verified (significant) differences for LBM and total body fat, as well as a tendency for reduction in abdominal fat compared with a control group (vibration training, 2 x 15 min/week). There were no effects in laboratory findings (e.g. cholesterol) or blood pressure. Beside highly significant improvements in strength and power, the interventions once again showed high attractiveness and compliance.
 
For the very elaborate TEST III study (Kemmler, Teschler, & Von Stengel, 2015), we focused on an even more vulnerable population of physical inactive women (70+) with low muscle mass and bone density. The central aim was the increment of muscle mass and bone density compared with a control group doing a low-impact functional training. After one year of intervention (WB-EMS, 1.5 x 20 min/week) TEST III showed highly relevant improvements in muscle mass/function and body fat. Effects on bone density were clearly significant, but compared with muscle mass in an unspectacular range, better comparable to mean values known from whole-body vibration. Here, we expected more obvious results, expecting a closer “muscle-to-bone interaction”. Overall, the TEST III conclusion is none the less positive, not least because we (again) had a high compliance with low dropout and high attendance.
WB-EMS induced energy expenditure and cardio metabolic effects were evaluated in TEST IV (Kemmler et al., 2016). These results will be presented at a later point in time (see below) so that we will continue by concentrating on TEST V (FORMOsA study). TEST V addressed the particularly crucial group of independently living elderly women (70+) with sarcopenic obesity, in other words people with very poor muscle mass/-function and concurrent high body fat. In view of the assumed functional limitations in this group, we gave up the usual (easy) EMS-accompanying movements in a standing position, and opted to conduct WB-EMS applications in a supine position instead. A previous pilot study showed significantly higher effects for power, muscle strength and mass when comparing an active WB-EMS application performing movement patterns during the impulse phase with a solely passive application. However, this very weak group showed highly significant effects on strength and power even after passive WB-EMS in a supine position. After the 6-month TEST V period, we found highly significant gains in a sarcopenia index based primarily on increased muscle mass and less on improvements in functional capacities (gait speed, grip strength). Because of an initially high protein intake (1 g/kg/body weight) these effects are independent of our accompanying protein supplementation of 0.4 g/kg/body weight. Despite a potential and certain existing need through initially more than 35 % of body fat, we could not show significant effects on total and abdominal fat. Surprisingly and contrary to TEST III, we found highly relevant and significant changes in cardio metabolic risk factors arising from the “metabolic syndrome”. TEST V showed that training in a supine position with additional movement patterns is suboptimal for developing important functional parameters like “strength”, “power”, “balance” and “gait speed” in elderly and so it should only be applied to corresponding limited populations.
 
Following the Formosa study, we organized a somewhat similar study to examine sarcopenic obesity in men 70+ (FranSO). During the training sessions, we dropped the supine position in favour of training in the more usual standing position. Compared with the FORMOsA study, we increased the individual protein intake to a total of 1.8 g/kg body weight.
 
After 14 weeks of WB-EMS Training (1.5 weeks / week, 12 - 20 min progressive, see above), we found significant improvements in almost all parameters. In addition to the total body fat, abdominal body fat was significantly reduced with simultaneous improvement of the skeletal muscle mass index, functional abilities (strength) and more favorable developments in the blood values ​​(e.g. cholesterol/blood fats). As in the previous study, all conditions (nutrition, physical and sporting activity) were kept stable over the intervention period.
Left to right: Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Kemmler, BA Anja Weissenfels, Dipl. Sports scientists Marc Teschler and Dr. Simon von Stengel
Despite the reasons mentioned above it is quite informative to compare the effects of WB-EMS to (strength) training protocols in elderly people. From the available literature, at least half of the average intense (strength) training protocols show less positive results than WB-EMS. Focusing on strength, conventional muscle training seems to show higher outcomes in maximal strength and substantial increments in power (e.g. performance or speed strength). Quite similar are the effects for reduction in body fat mass, always bearing in mind the higher training volume in conventional programs. There is no doubt, however, about the dominance of conventional sport training programs on the endpoint “bone density”, while values from WB-EMS are in the range of whole-body vibration training.
 

From our TEST studies we concluded that in elderly people not willing or able to perform conventional body training for a wide range of reasons, WB-EMS represents an independent option for prevention and therapy. Though the effects are not that extensive (e.g. effects on endurance), the barriers that usually limit prolonged implementation are none the less lower. In additional, WB-EMS is widely regarded as an attractive, appropriate and efficient training method with no fundamental risk factors assuming that the exclusion criteria are heeded, there is proper preparation and sensible application. Then, and from the actual state of research, WB-EMS can be regarded as a time-efficient option for an independent, musculoskeletal prophylaxis and improvement of functional capacities.


 
Combining WB-EMS and endurance training 
A combination of both training methods, WB-EMS and endurance, is used by many coaches for enhanced effects for the cardiovascular system and especially for body fat reduction.
 
Concerning the first effect, one study (Fritzsche et al., 2010) evaluated the influence of conventional low frequency training (see above; in standing position) on cardiac and functional parameters in patients with heart insufficiency. After 6 months, the authors found an improvement in muscle physiological and metabolic parameters “by far exceeding the results of common traditional aerobic training forms”. Consequently, the combination of both methods (WB-EMS with additional endurance training) should generate optimum results, also with a certain relevance for mobile WB-EMS application. In contrast to Fritzsche et al., we primarily focused on the effect of a combined WB-EMS/endurance intervention on metabolic syndrome and energetic metabolism in overweight and obese men (Kemmler, Von Stengel, Schwarz, & Mayhew, 2012). It was also one of our aims to closely examine the “impressive” effect on body fat reduction given that WB-EMS is a training method requiring relatively litte time (1.5 x 20 min/week). To capture the energy expenditure with and without WB-EMS we used the “gold standard” method of indirect calorimetry (resp. analysis of breathing gas). We found significantly higher energy expenditure after a classic 16-min WB-EMS application with additional light movement patterns in a standing position (intermitted, 85 Hz; see above) and a similar trend for the 30-min endurance program (cross-trainer) with 60 % of maximum oxygen intake under “continuous current” (7 Hz vs. 85 Hz; 350 µs). However, this energy expenditure for the classic EMS application (107 ± 16 vs. 92 ± 17 kcal/16 min) is borderline negligable. Concerning the cross-trainer endurance program, the very low frequency (7 Hz) showed clear effects (500 ± 67 vs. 85 Hz: 476 ± 68 vs. No EMS: 450 ± 60 kcal/30 min). Especially the marginal effects from classic EMS application are somehow at odds with the obvious fat reduction with WB-EMS. Reconsidering EMS-induced higher energy expenditure, there are three possible mechanisms: (1) the energy need during acute load (see above), (2) excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (meaning intermediate effects over several hours post-training) and (3) an increased resting metabolic rate conditioned by EMS-induced increase in muscle mass. While (3), more for medium to long-term effects, plays a not inconsiderable role for weight or “fat management”, point (2) is frequently overrated because the total energy used amounts to 10 - 15 % of the immediate load.
 
Methodically debatable is the question, whether our spirometric measurement really captured the actual energy consumption during WB-EMS with the simultaneous stimulation of 2,800 cm2 of body surface (point (1)). Actually, indirect calorimetry is less suitable for measuring energy consumption during mainly local and anaerobic energy supply such as strength training or WB-EMS. More sophisticated methods should therefore be used to address this topic.
Different impulse frequencies during WB-EMS – an evidence-based review
Articles found on the WWW about WB-EMS frequently suggest the dominance of modulated middle frequency (≈2 Hz) (MET) over low frequency EMS (≈<100 Hz). At a first glance, the effects quoted sound quite reasonable and supported by experience from neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Thus, MET currents are mostly used in therapy with advantages for certain muscle activation diseases and also linked to a reduced sensation load (pain!) (See below). However, there is heated discussion about this kind of current for the effectiveness on muscle training in healthy subjects.
 
We want to address this topic free of ideology and with clear reference to the existing scientific literature. Summarized, a sophisticated search in the appropriate scientific literature databases (e.g. Medline, PEDro) found only 5 investigations directly comparing low and medium frequency of (local) EMS. Just one of these studies examined the question on a longitudinal basis over 3 weeks (Stefanovska & Vodovnik, 1985) and shows almost a twofold improvement in the strength for leg extension in low frequency EMS application (25 Hz) compared with MET (2,500 Hz/25 Hz). With one exception, all the other (cross-sectional) studies looking for similar effects show more favorable developments for low frequency EMS application in acute strength development and fatigue. No consistent results can be found for discomfort or experience of pain during EMS application. 
 
Summarizing the available literature, there is nothing to suggest the dominance of MET. Furthermore, there are hardly any reliable data from investigations of high quality, and what there are but if, depending on endpoints, differ strongly from low frequency EMS application. Of course frequently reported positive effects of MET are not ruled out, but try to postulate a dominance of MET from professional and evidence-based research could be clutching at straws.
Careful use with initially too high intensity during EMS
In 2015, SpiegelOnline magazine ran an article with headline “dangerous current impulses“ that aptly described the problem of (too) high initial current intensity in WB-EMS in beginners: dizziness, nausea and high creatine kinase (CK) values with corresponding possible stress for the kidneys – certainly not the best motivation for a potential user. What is the real “truth” behind these reported, almost unbelievably high, CK values after (too) intense initial application – which is certainly also a problem that could have a clinical relevance in our research area with older people. In order to clarify this problem we conducted a study with three questions (Kemmler, Teschler, Bebenek, & von Stengel, 2015; Teschler, 2016): (1) Are the CK values as high as sometimes reported in the literature after WB-EMS application to exertion (85 Hz, 20 min, intermittent, see above)? (2) Does rhabdomyolysis (muscle decay) have clinical relevance in healthy users? (3) Does regular WB-EMS lead to a reduction in CK values after exertion?
 
Question 1 can definitely be answered with a clear “yes”! In fact, we found a 117-fold increase in CK in comparison to resting value (170 IE/l). Twenty-six sporting subjects (25 - 50 y) without WB-EMS experience did one single bout of WB-EMS to exertion, with CK peaking after 3 - 4 days. The maximum value was about 144,000 IE, a result confirmed by recently reported even higher values (240,000 IE) in young professional soccer players after WB-EMS to exhaustion (Kastner, Braun, & Meyer, 2014). In fact, WB-EMS application meets all the above-mentioned criteria for training-induced CK levels such as (a) high proportion of upper body musculature, (b) high volume of exercised muscles, (c) short breaks, (d) high innervation rate, and (e) mechanical stress.
 
On the other hand, question 2 can not be answered that easily. A pronounced stress-induced (“exertional”) rhabdomyolysis is defined as values of more than 10,000 IE/l or a 50-fold increase in resting value, and can be associated with considerable health complications. Beside (heart-) muscle-related problems caused by hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia, as well as liver damage, acute renal failure is frequently reported after (trauma-induced) rhabdomyolysis. In this context, we evaluated not only parameters for rhabdomyolysis (e.g. CK, myoglobin), but also electrolytes (e.g. potassium, calcium) and kidney parameters such as creatinine concentration, glomular filtration rate, as well as traces of protein and blood in the urine. We found no abnormalities in electrolytes or for the kidneys and the urine parameters, despite a 40-fold increase in myoglobin, which is considered as “nephrotoxic“. Thus, no cause for concern? Certainly not, all our study participants were healthy, fit and well hydrated and were also guided and supervised very closely by medical staff. The extent to which an initial application to exertion can lead to renal impairment in people with poor preparation remains undecided. 
 
Turning to question 3: Due to a “repeated bout effect”, CK concentration (as guiding criteria for rhabdomyolysis) increases only about 4 - 5 fold after a 10-week conditioning training (1 x 20 min/week) and thus lies in the range of intense conventional strength training. Approaching the present topic with a certain degree of common sense, exertional CK values should not occur during the first sessions/trial session. In training, however, especially competitive/performance-oriented novices with a certain tolerance for high loads demand exactly this kind of exertional stress, a request which is often heeded by EMS trainers. Again, due to the supramaximal intensity and the large amount of simultaneously trained muscles in WB-EMS, a reckless application is particularly “prone” to provoking “exertional rhabdomyolysis” with all its associated health consequences. Therefore, a slow approach to higher current intensities should be paramount during a 4 - 6-week conditioning phase.
Effectiveness of WB-EMS compared with conventional strength training methods
Twelve times greater effects of WB-EMS Training versus conventional strength training – to be honest, not even the keenest WB-EMS supporter would believe this. In fact, the myth comes from a scientific study which showed a 12-fold higher CK concentration after WB-EMS compared with classic strength training. We now know about the significant effects of WB-EMS on body composition and functional capacities (see above). However, the question is to what extent WB-EMS can compete with a similar time-effective training protocol such as high-intensity (strength) training (HIT). To answer this question, we conducted a study with men aged 30 - 50 years – certainly one of the few groups for which there is a relevant competition between WB-EMS and HIT (Kemmler, Teschler, Weissenfels, et al., 2015). The HIT protocol was designed as single-set training to exertion with different strategies for exhaustion 2-times/week (12 - 14 exercises/session; ≤ 10 - 12 repetitions/exercise; ≈30 min/Session), WB-EMS used an intermitted current protocol (1.5 sessions/week; 6 s impulse – 4 s rest, 85 Hz, 350 µs, rectangular) with (very) slight body movements over 4 months. During the period of the intervention we allowed no changes in nutrition, physical or sports activity. Overall, we were able to record highly relevant and significant improvements in both groups for fat-free mass, appendicular muscle mass, total and abdominal body fat mass, and maximal strength. Slight differences in favor of HIT were found just for fat-free mass, muscle mass of arms and legs as well as maximum strength of leg extension, while the maximum strength of the back straighteners and the abdominal body fat tended to develop better after WB-EMS. This result came as surprise, because we expected a much higher dominance of the very complex and elaborate HIT.
 
Consequently, for middle-aged men both methods, HIT and WB-EMS appear equally attractive and effective training methods for positively influencing fitness, strength, muscle mass and body fat. As for time efficiency, both methods seem to be suitable for people with limited time resources, whereby the time effort in WB-EMS is clearly more favorable (50 %).
 
The somewhat lower popularity of HIT in women could be a good opportunity for WB-EMS time-efficient fitness and body composition in this particular group. However, this speculation, supported by a high percentage of female WB-EMS users, should be underpinned by further investigations.
Info
Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg – Institute of Medical Physics
First studies on EMS Training already in 2008 subject to research so far (selected)

- the effectiveness of EMS Training in the elderly sector
- different EMS frequencies
- the combination of EMS with endurance training
- grossly negligent application of EMS Training and its consequences on health
- comparison between HIT strength training and EMS Training

www.imp.uni-erlangen.de
Further literature:
 
Filipovic, A., et al. (2011). Electromyostimulation--a systematic review of the influence of training regimens and stimulation parameters on effectiveness in electromyostimulation training of selected strength parameters. J Strength Cond Res, 25(11), 3218-3238

Filipovic, A., et al. (2012). Electromyostimulation - A Systematic Review of the Effects of Different EMS Methods on Selected Strength Parameters in Trained and Elite Athletes. J Strength Cond Res, 26(9), 2600-2614
 
Fritzsche, D., Fruend, A., Schenk, s., Mellwig, K.P., Kleinöder, H., Gummert, J., et al. (2010). Elektromyostimulation (EMS) bei kardiologischen Patienten. Herz 35, 34 - 40.
 
Kastner, A., Braun, M., & Meyer, T. (2014). Two Cases of Rhabdomyolysis After Training With Electromyostimulation by 2 Young Male Professional Soccer Players. Clin J Sport Med.
 
Kemmler, W., Teschler, M., Bebenek, M., & von Stengel, S. (2015). [(Very) high Creatinkinase concentration after exertional whole-body electromyostimulation application: health risks and longitudinal adaptations]. Wien Med Wochenschr, 165(21-22), 427-435.
 
Kemmler, W., Teschler, M., & Von Stengel, S. (2015). Effekt von Ganzkörper-Elektromyostimulation – “A series of studies“. Osteologie 23(1), 20-29.
 
Kemmler, W., Teschler, M., Weissenfels, A., Bebenek, M., von Stengel, S., Kohl, M., et al. (2016). Whole-body electromyostimulation to fight sarcopenic obesity in community-dwelling older women at risk. Resultsof the randomized controlled FORMOsA-sarcopenic obesity study. Osteoporos Int, 27(11), 3261-3270.
 
Kemmler, W., Teschler, M., Weissenfels, A., Fröhlich, M., Kohl, M., & S., Von Stengel. (2015). Ganzkörper-Elektromyostimulationst versus HIT-Krafttraining - Effekte auf Körperzusammensetzung und Muskelkraft. Dtsch Z Sportmed, online first.
 
Kemmler, W., Von Stengel, S., Schwarz, J., & Mayhew, J. L. (2012). Effect of whole-body electromyostimulation on energy expenditure during exercise. J Strength Cond Res, 26(1), 240-245.
 
Stefanovska, A., & Vodovnik, L. (1985). Change in muscle force following electrical stimulation. Dependence on stimulation waveform and frequency. [Comparative Study Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov‘t]. Scand J Rehabil Med, 17(3), 141-146.
 
Teschler, M.; Weissenfels, A.; Fröhlich, M.; Kohl, M., Bebenek, M.; von Stengel, S.; Kemmler, W. (2016). (Very) High creatine kinase (CK) levels after Whole-Body Electromyostimulation. Are ther implications for health? Int J Clin Exp Med, 9(11), 22841-22850.
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